Landrace Strains: 10 False Claims from Page 1 of Google

A Brief Tour of Internet Bullshit About Landrace Cannabis Strains was the working title for this post.

You get the idea.

So, let’s start from the top of Google Page 1.

1. “Most landrace genetics are 100% Sativa or 100% Indica.” (Alchimia)

John McPartland calls the Indica–Sativa–Ruderalis system the “vernacular taxonomy.” It’s derived from some extremely dubious seventies studies by Richard Evans Schultes. In my view, Indica and Sativa are problematic categories for understanding any type of Cannabis. They’re no less awkward to apply to landraces than they are to the hybrid slop on the average menu in Amsterdam or North America.

Schultes Kandahar Afghanistan 1971

Harvard ethnobotanist Richard Evans Schultes with an Indica-type variant in Kandahar, Afghanistan, 1971

Cannabis isn’t a plant that respects limits or boundaries, and that applies to people’s preconceptions about Indicas and Sativas as much as it does to borders, cultures, or geography. In practice, the morphology of Cannabis intergrades. To intergrade means “to pass into another form by a series of intervening forms.” In Cannabis, intergrading occurs in all directions: between domesticated and ruderal, between stereotypically Indica and Sativa strains, and within the population of a single strain.

In the Himalaya, for example, domesticated field plants (i.e., landraces) intergrade with the weedy ruderal stands allowed to grow in and around villages. At one extreme there are the large-seeded, large-leaved plants in the fields. At the other, there are the small-leaved, small-seeded weedy plants around waste heaps, paths, or ditches. In-between, are plants exhibiting a continuous series of intermediate forms. This is what’s known as a crop–weed complex.

Similarly, as a crow flies from Nepal to Afghanistan, the closer it approaches the Hindu Kush, the more common stereotypical Indica characteristics such as broad, obovate leaflets or early maturation. By Pakistani Kashmir, Indica-type leaflets and aromas are commonplace, though strains still tend to be tall and to mature as late as early November. At Tirah Valley or Paktia, dwarf or semidwarf early maturing variants become more common, as do Indica leaflets. Again, the broad geographic picture is intergrading.

But here’s a crucial caveat. One of Google’s favoured landrace experts, Brian D. Colwell, writes that “In general, landrace cannabis strains are amazingly consistent within strain, either 100% Indica or 100% Sativa…” In fact, reality is almost always otherwise, even when it comes to regions such as the Hindu Kush. Stereotypical Indica-type plants most often exist as extreme variants within the population of a single landrace. Even in Tirah or Chitral, in a field of one landrace you typically find a spectrum of traits ranging from broad-leafleted to narrow-leafleted, tall to short, and every permutation thereof. Strains that consistently conform to the Indica stereotype appear to be a true rarity, both among landraces and modern types.

Notoriously, Richard Evans Schultes argued Hindu Kush Cannabis merits recognition as a species, Cannabis indica, by using a single extreme specimen from Kandahar. Similarly, since the ’70s, breeders have consciously selected Hindu Kush strains for Indica-type traits. In fact, narrow-leafleted variants were commonplace in nearly all ostensible ‘pure Indicas’ then as now, as demonstrated in early photos of Afghani #1 by Mel Frank. Likewise, individual plants from authentic Indica-type landraces produce a variety of effects, from stereotypical Indica sedation to Sativa-type stimulation.

Put simply, these categories don’t neatly apply to many strains, including landraces. Arguably, the Western fixation on leaflet width per se is something of a distraction, particularly in the strict context of taxonomy, when what’s more significant is total leaf area. In Cannabis, large leaves are an adaptive trait that develops through domestication. Small leaves develop when plants grows as weeds or go wild. From a taxonomist’s perspective, using leaflet size to differentiate between supposed species of Cannabis is to misunderstand taxonomic theory.

Importantly, evidence suggests most landraces have arisen through hybridization between landraces.

2. “[Landrace] varieties are very stable and present very few variationsif any⁠—from one plant to another.” (Alchimia)

Once, an early customer who grew out the Lebanese I collected in Bekaa Valley emailed me. He couldn’t believe the plants (at this point in vegetative stage) were from the same strain, because they were so morphologically diverse. This is particularly the case in northern landraces, i.e. those cultivated for traditional resin in regions such as the Himalaya, Hindu Kush, and Middle East.

Landraces typically exhibit extensive variations around their basic theme, much like a Beethoven symphony. It’s a characteristic that results from traditional methods of selection. As Ernest Small, arguably the leading authority on Cannabis, writes, “Landraces usually have a much wider genetic base, corresponding with a broader range of variability and a broader range of adaptation to stresses, especially to the local environmental conditions and biotic agents where they were selected.”

3. “Pure cannabis strains (also called landraces or purebreds) have developed in [their] natural environment and [have] never been crossed with any other strain but inbred through many, many generations.” (Alchimia)

Again, it bears emphasizing that landraces have a very broad genetic base, particularly compared to true cultivars and modern pot hybrids.

Importantly, few aficionados realize that most landraces have originated as hybrids between landraces. Recent studies of Lebanese landraces suggest they’re hybrids. This is likely true of most good landraces from famous regions such as Nepal and Afghanistan. Notably, Thai and Lao farmers use the equivalent term for hybrid in their languages to refer to their landraces.

Thai landrace Laos

Thai–Lao landraces, Central Laos. Photo by Peter Maguire, author of the highly recommended book Thai Stick: Surfers, Scammers, and the Untold Story of the Marijuana Trade

4.Outside of Central Asia, all landrace strains are the result of escaped (or “feral”), cultivars, strains that were selectively bred by humans, which then gradually adapted to their environment over time.” (Leafly)

In fact, the main landraces found outside Central Asia are southern (i.e., ganja) landraces, which were transported around the globe by people bringing ganja and/or seed. Ganja is the traditional name for bud. The British Empire exported ganja to Indian indentured labourers in the Caribbean, Angolan slaves carried seed and ganja from Africa to Brazil, and so on. Similarly, the major historic diffusions of Cannabis cultivation out of Central Asia during the Iron Age and medieval period appear to have involved the transport of seed. In other words, the history of Cannabis in Asia most likely involved domestication at different sites and times combined with sudden, major waves of diffusion of cultivation such as occurred in the ’60s and ’70s.

5. “Good examples of landrace strains are Lamb’s Bread from Jamaica, Hindu Kush from the Middle East, Swazi Gold from South-Central Africa.” (Greencamp)

It’s a widespread misunderstanding that single regions such as the Hindu Kush necessarily have a single landrace. The reality is far more diverse and nuanced.

The UNODC Afghan Cannabis Surveys list several different strains such as Watani and Mazari. To what extent the names correlate to specific strains isn’t clear. But even a small region of the Hindu Kush such as Chitral appears to have more than one recognizably distinct landrace under cultivation.

The widespread misconception that the term Lamb’s Bread refers to a specific strain is an example of how public understanding of landraces is mired in confusion. Lamb’s Bread is an epithet for ganja that arises from Rasta sacramental traditions, themselves derived from Hindu and Christian practices, not least the Holy Communion.

The names most closely associated with Swaziland are ‘Swazi Red’ and ‘Roibaart’ (‘Redbeard’), because of Swazi ganja often having prominent red stigmas.

The same points apply to Brian D. Calwell’s claim that “Landrace strains native to Central and Southeast Asia include but are not limited to Aceh, Altai (South-Central Russia/Mongolia), Cambodian, Luang Prabang, Nepalese and Thai.” None of these places correspond to a single landrace.

6. “One of the biggest flaws of landrace strains [is] they adapt extremely poorly to the environment.” (Greencamp)

This is completely untrue. As explained by Ernest Small, the wide genetic base of landraces typically gives them a broader range of variability and adaptation to stresses and disease than modern hybrids and cultivars.

Even the widespread notion that Hindu Kush strains are necessarily unable to cope with damp or rain isn’t born out in practice. A customer of The Real Seed Company successfully grew a second-generation Chitrali landrace in an outdoor guerilla grow in Hawaii. It took several severe storms and showed no sign of mold. The Mazar-i-Sharif and Syrian landraces have exhibited similarly impressive resistance to northern European and coastal North American climates.

Chitrali Hindu Kush landrace

Chitrali landrace collected by The Real Seed Company outdoors in Hawaiian jungle. No sign of mold after several intense storms.

8. “Documents that date back as far as 2900 BC let us know that cannabis has been an integral part of human culture throughout the world for thousands of years.” (Leafly, Greencamp, Wikileaf, Honest Marijuana Co., etc.)

This seems to be a reference to the mythological Chinese emperor, Fuxi, who legend says was miraculously born with a serpent’s body around 2900 BCE. Fuxi is credited with developing agriculture, writing, and so on, much like a similar legendary figure, the Yellow Emperor. But there are no such “documents.” The earliest examples of Chinese writing date much later, namely to the Shang Dynasty (c. 1800–1200 BCE), and involve divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones. True early references are inscribed jade tablets from the Zhou Dynasty (1046–256 BCE), where the character for Cannabis has a negative connotation of numbness and stupefaction. The Shennong Ben Cao Jing and its commentaries deal more extensively with Cannabis and may reflect practices that could date back as far as the Neolithic. But the original text itself was compiled from oral traditions c. 200–250 CE, and the commentaries are later still.

9. “Our ancient stoner ancestors probably consumed cannabis as an edible or as a weed tea. It probably wasn’t until later that some ganja genius got it in his or her head to inhale the smoke of a burning pot plant.” (Honest Marijuana Co.)

The earliest way to consume cannabis to get high was almost certainly by smoking. Pottery braziers, some dating to the Neolithic, have been intepreted as used for this purpose, notably a find of what appear to be charred Cannabis seeds in a third millennium BCE burial from Romania. Central Asian burial braziers dating c. 500 BCE, as described in the Histories of Herodotus (c. 450 BCE), most likely represent continuations of this steppe practice. Drinking cannabis from vessels developed after smoking, most likely in imitation of wine, which was associated with the urban cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean.

10. “As far as most experts are concerned, there are no less than around 100 landrace strains still in existence.” (Seed Supreme)

This is news to me….


And we’re still on Page 1!

Truly, the Internet is overflowing with nonsense.

It’s customary to blame social media, but Google itself is a major culprit in the spread of misinformation and disinformation. For now, the solution is to read authoritative books and publications.

For a reliable guide to the botany of Cannabis, read Ernest Small’s Cannabis: A Complete Guide. For a considerably less reliable but still extensive guide to its history, there’s Robert Clarke and Mark Merlins’ Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany.

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